On October 22, Timothy Thomas presented “Aflatoxins and Climate Change: Preliminary Results from a New Biophysical Model for Groundnuts and Selected FTF Countries” at USAID. The presentation focused on groundnut production in Burkina Faso and Niger. The main results are presented in Table 1, which shows the normal aflatoxin concentration at the national level with and without climate change. Results vary by climate model: With the GFDL climate model, aflatoxin contamination is projected to increase, while contamination might virtually disappear with the MIROC model.
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In September, researchers, policymakers, farmers and industry representatives met in Berlin during a three-day conference (International Conference on Agricultural GHG Emissions and Food Security) to identify mitigation action and research opportunities at national, regional and international levels. The conference was timely: Recent developments in the UNFCCC negotiations (i.e. the Paris Agreement in 2015 with its agreement to limit global mean temperature rise below 2 °C above pre-industrial levels, and the Koronivia joint work on agriculture) have made explicit the role that the agriculture sector can play in reducing GHG emissions. Second, the UNFCCC negotiations around agriculture and now the IPCC special report Global Warming of 1.5 °C have reinvigorated calls for incentives to reduce GHG emissions, including the pricing of carbon and other GHG emissions in the form of a tax. This last point is particularly important because recent findings (Frank et al 2017, Hasegawa et al 2018) indicate that a carbon tax on all GHG emissions may lead to significant tradeoffs between the reduction of emissions from anthropic activities, including the agriculture sector, and food security, but modeling results are more favorable for food security when the focus is on taxing fossil fuels (for example, Ringler et al. 2016). All of this indicates how important it is to develop a deeper understanding of the potential, the costs, and the most efficient methods to reduce GHG emissions from agriculture and to assess impacts on food security and nutrition.
Sophie Theis, Senior Research Analyst at IFPRI, presented on a forthcoming GCAN paper on gender and resilience at USAID on October 3, 2018. This work explains the GCAN framework in further detail drawing on the broader literature on gender, climate change adaptation, and agricultural livelihoods, and it provides guidance for how to study the relationship between gender and resilience in greater depth to inform and evaluate resilience programs. This paper includes a checklist of questions organized by the themes of the framework to consider including in gender-sensitive resilience assessments and evaluations.
GCAN will be participating in the Resilience Measurement, Evidence, and Learning (RMEL) Annual Conference, November 12-15 in New Orleans. The goals of the conference are to accelerate progress on building resilience through improved measurement, analytical strategies, and learning, and bring forward evidence about what works for enhancing the resilience of people and systems in differing contexts. GCAN will join Mercy Corps, ACDI/VOCA, FHI 360, and Nathan Associates for a panel entitled, “Resilience for all? Working towards inclusive and equitable resilience programs and measurement.”
To showcase the use of Feed-the-Future Open Agriculture and Nutrition Datasets in agricultural research and development, IFPRI's Gender, Climate Change and Nutrition Integration Initiative (GCAN) organized the second Feed the Future DATATHON to make household-level data more accessible and interoperable with other databases, and in particular with spatially explicit, biophysical data layers.
On June 7, Carlo Azzarri with Zhe Guo presented a seminar on the GCAN Data Harmonization to the USAID Feed the Future's Monitoring, Evaluation, and Learning (MEL) team. The seminar featured GCAN’s ongoing efforts to harmonize and standardize Feed the Future Population-Based Survey datasets across gender, agriculture, nutrition, and climate dimensions. Using the available FTF baseline as well as interim datasets from three countries (Bangladesh, Ghana, and Zambia), a series of preliminary insights gained from the data ex-post harmonization were presented and discussed with the USAID MEL team. For example, higher soil fertility was shown to be correlated with improved child nutrition outcomes in Zambia; higher level of plant vegetation associated with lower household hunger in Ghana; and finally higher temperature and more rainfall correlated with higher workload for women. The harmonized datasets are publicly available on the GCAN project website (https://gcan.ifpri.info/category/outputs/Datasets/) and IFPRI’s data repository (https://dataverse.harvard.edu/dataverse/IFPRI).
IFPRI hosted a recent meeting of the Gender and Resilience Working Group meeting on June 26, 2017, where two members of the GCAN Team, Elizabeth Bryan and Sophie Theis, presented the GCAN framework. The presentation provided the rationale behind the framework and explained how it compliments other frameworks on resilience, agriculture and nutrition. Members of the working group presented plans for the development of a gender and resilience framework currently being designed by the group. Discussions were held on how the GCAN framework might inform the gender and resilience framework and how both can be applied to strengthen the integration of climate resilience, gender and nutrition into project implementation.
In December 2016, the USAID Bureau for Food Security, in collaboration with the USAID/Cambodia Mission, convened the Climate-Smart Agriculture Global Learning and Evidence Exchange (CSA-GLEE) meeting in Siem Reap, Cambodia, to deepen collaboration efforts and action on climate-smart agriculture.
Special webinar on how the Feed the Future Gender-Sensitive Climate-Smart Agriculture for Nutrition (GCAN) initiative aims to support USAID on the new Global Food Security Strategy.
Gender norms and power dynamics can play significant roles in influencing the ability of people, households, and communities to build resilience capacities and put them into practice in the face of a shock or stress.
Achieving the goals of sustained poverty reduction, nutritional security, and elimination of hunger requires careful consideration of cross-cutting issues such as climate resilience, gender, and nutrition. However, integrating these complex and nuanced cross-cutting issues into development programming remains a challenge. IFPRI’s Gender, Climate Change, and Nutrition Integration Initiative (GCAN) is supporting the Bureau for Food Security at USAID to integrate climate-resilience, gender and nutrition considerations into US development programming as part of the Global Food Security Strategy (GFSS).
GCAN organized a brown bag seminar with two DATATHON-DC Winners, Naziha Sultana (International Center for Research on Women) and Adan Silverio Murillo (School of Public Affairs, American University), at USAID Headquarters in Washington, DC, on October 26. Tim Thomas and Jawoo Koo (both IFPRI) opened the seminar by introducing GCAN and DATATHON, highlighting the project’s overall activities so far and the team’s effort for harmonizing the datasets, programming the event, and sharing lessons learned through the process. This was followed by presentations by Naziha and Adan, who both shared their additional research work and findings since the DATATHON event. Naziha presented results from additional regression analyses exploring correlations between the gender of household head and children’s health outcomes in Bangladesh, finding the level of literacy and gender as the most important predictors across the country. Adan further developed his curios research question on the relationship between women’s public speaking and the height of children in Bangladesh. Beyond the initial assessments of significant correlations, Adan applied additional statistical examinations using the bounding and fixed-effects methodology to further investigate and presented a hypothesis that increased empowerment of men might be the driver of both women empowerment and children’s health outcomes. After the presentations, Naziha and Adan shared their appreciation for the team’s effort making the panel datasets harmonized and easy to use for research and stated they would also use other Feed the Future Population-Based Survey data available for other countries too. The GCAN team will use lessons learned from the first DATATHON to prepare the second event in Dhaka, Bangladesh, in November even more useful and impactful.
To increase public awareness and the use of Open Agriculture and Nutrition Datasets in agricultural research and development, IFPRI's G-CAN Project Team is working to make household-level data more approachable and interoperable. The team will organize the first Feed the Future DATATHON event in Washington, DC to showcase findings from the harmonized data in Bangladesh and also invite avid data geeks to generate their own analyses, visualizations, and new insights around the suggested research topics of:
On May 8-9, 2017, several members of the GCAN team participated in the “Technical Training on Climate-Smart Agriculture for National Agricultural Investment Plan (NAIP) Design & Appraisal” held in Dakar, Senegal, as part of the NAIP refresh. NAIPs are developed under the Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Programme (CAADP) under the New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEAPD) of the African Union. It is crucial that this continent-wide agenda to transform Africa’s agriculture and stimulate growth, which includes a commitment by each country to increase public resources for agriculture to ten percent of government spending in order to achieve a six percent average annual agriculture sector growth, incorporates climate, gender and nutrition aspects. Presentations by GCAN climate expert Alex de Pinto, focused on climate smart agriculture and its role in agricultural development. GCAN experts Carlo Azzarri, Elizabeth Bryan, and Jowel Choufani on weather shocks and the GCAN conceptual framework, respectively.
The 2017 ReSAKSS Annual Conference will take place in Maputo, Mozambique on October 25-27, 2017. The theme of this year's conference is: “A THRIVING AGRICULTURAL SECTOR IN A CHANGING CLIMATE: Meeting Malabo Declaration Goals through Climate-Smart Agriculture”. More details can be found in the Agenda (2017 ReSAKSS Annual Conference).
Student finalists have been selected as part of the GCAN Student Challenge to explore issues related to the intersection of climate, gender and nutrition using Feed-the-Future datasets. Each of the students has a GCAN team mentor and will develop a publishable research paper that will be released as a GCAN-IFPRI discussion paper in early 2018.
Across sub-sectors of rural climate resilience – including social protection, disaster risk reduction, livelihood diversification, climate-smart agriculture, among others – what are promising approaches to address gender and nutrition in project design and evaluation?
To facilitate the use of Feed-the-Future Open Agriculture and Nutrition Datasets in agricultural research and development, IFPRI's Gender, Climate Change and Nutrition Integration Initiative (GCAN) organized the first Feed the Future DATATHON to make household-level data more accessible and interoperable with other databases, and in particular spatially explicit, biophysical data layers.
Achieving the goals of Feed-the-Future and the Global Food Security Strategy requires careful consideration of the impact of relevant climate science on agricultural production, while at the same time considering other cross-cutting issues that influence agricultural growth, poverty alleviation and resilience, especially gender and nutrition.
The workshop kicked off the Gender-Responsive and Climate-Resilient Agriculture for Nutrition project (GCAN).